Grape Vines in Indonesia

Grape Vines of Indonesia

English Version:

Grape has been in Indonesia since early 18th century. It was reported, in Kupang, the vine grew very vigorous. In Bontain (Sulawesi), in the first planting year, it could be harvested many delicious and bluish grapes.

In 1828, Hoofdcommissie v.d. Landbouw (Central Agricultural Committee) had mentioned that grape vines were also found in Besuki and Banyuwangi of Java island.

Some varieties had been introduced into Indonesia since long time ago, even since Dutch’s colonialism era and now have been considered as local variety grapes. Some of them are Black Alicante, Golden Champion, Muscat van Alexandrie (Probolinggo Putih), Frankenthaler (Probolinggo Biru), Isabella, Gross Colman, dan Alphonso Lavale (Bali).

Todays, in Indonesia’s horticultural research institutes, especially the one that writer knows, Balitjestro, Batu – Malang – East Java, there are around 80 varieties collected from many countries. Through selection and observation stages, then they were released as leading varieties to Indonesian society.

Some leading varieties that are well known:

1. Anggur Bali / Balinese grape

Prime Name: Anggur Bali
Other Name: Alphonso Lavale, Alphonso la Valle, Ribier, Rivier, Rabier, Black Muscadel, Prince Royal Albert, Blaue Oliventraube, Blaue Geisdutte, Gross Noir, Almeria Negra.
Origin: France
Species: V. Vinifera
Breeder:
Released:
Uses: Table and Wine grape
Pedigree: Bellino x Lady Downess Seedling
Description: Berry color black, medium to large size berry, seeded, thick skin, medium sweetness. It has been considered as Indonesia local grape variety. It is widely planted in bali island since before 1974, especially in Buleleng, Seririt, Banyupoh of Singaraja region. In 1984, there were already around 40,000 plants (around 80 hectares) in Buleleng with total production 500 tons of grape.

2. Probolinggo Biru / Frankenthaler

Prime Name: Probolinggo Biru
Other Name: Frankenthaler, Black Hamburg, Blauer Trollinger, Frankenthaler, Raisin Bleu de Frankenthal, Trollingi Keb, Uva Nera d’Amburgo, Muscat Hamburg
Origin: Very old variety of disputed origin
Species: V. vinifera
Breeder:
Released:
Uses: Table, Wine
Pedigree:
Description: Bluish black, medium size berry, bunch grape

3. Probolinggo Putih / Muscat van Alexandrie

Prime Name: Probolinggo Putih, Iskendiriye Misketi, Muscat van Alexandrie, Alexander Muskat, Moscatel de Malaga, Moscatel Roma, Muscatel de Jesus
Other Name: Calabria, Moscato Gordo, Muscat de Jerusalem, Tokay Musque, Zibibb
Origin: Egypt
Species: V. Vinifera
Breeder:
Released:
Uses: Table, Wine, Raisin
Pedigree:
Description: Berry color greenish yellow, eipsoidal, skin tough, sweet and sour, has a certain good aroma.

4. Probolinggo Super / Cardinal

Prime Name: Probolinggo Super
Other Name: Cardinal, Apostoliatiko, Carabournu, Karaburnu Rannii, Kardinal
Origin: USA
Species: V. vinifera
Breeder: Elmer Snyder and Frank Harmon Institution: U.S. Hort. Field Stn. (Fresno, CA)
Released: 1946
Uses: Table
Pedigree: Flame Tokay x Ribier (Alphonse Lavallée)
Description: Farmers in Probolinggo have a less favor in this variety because in rainy season, this variety will set less fruit and easy to crack.

5. Caroline

Prime Name: Carolina Black Rose
Other Name: Caroline, Dunstan200
Origin: USA (N. Carolina)
Species: American Hybrid
Breeder: Robert T. Dunstan
Released: 1964
Uses: Table Grape
Pedigree: Aurelia (White) x Black Rose (Black)
Description:A Robust, vigorous vine, berry color black, vinifera skin and flesh, large berry but not as large as Black Rose, resistant to downy mildew. Aurelia is another cross by Dunstan from Chaoch x Seyve-Villard 12-375. In Australia, it is a parental seed of Marroo Seedless. It is a sibling of Dunstan 210 and Dunstan 236. In Indonesia, it is well known as red grape from Australia. It was introduced from Australia.

6. Prabu Bestari / Black Prince

Prime Name: Prabu Bestari
Other Name: Black Prince, Blek Prens, Rose of Peru
Origin: South Africa
Species: V. Vinifera
Breeder:
Released:
Uses: Table grape
Pedigree:
Description: It is an introduction plant from Australia in 1986. Vines vigorous. Bunches medium large, medium long, regular, cylindrical, neither shouldered or winged, compact or very compact. Berries deep reddish to purplish black, ellipsoidal elongated, small, size moderately variable. Skin adherent to flesh, medium thick, medium tough. Flesh firm, crisp, juicy, good flavored and sweet. Ripening is uniform,

Versi Indonesia:

Anggur telah masuk Indonesia sejak awal abad ke-18. Dilaporkan, di kupang tanaman anggur sangat subur tumbuhnya. Di bontain (sulawesi), dalam tahun itu juga sudah dapat menghasilkan banyak buah anggur yang lezat rasanya dan kebiru-biruan warnanya.

Pada tahun 1828, Hoofdcommissie v.d. Landbouw (Komisi Pusat Pertanian) pernah menyatakan, bahwa tanaman anggur ditemukan juga di daerah Besuki dan Banyuwangi dari pulau jawa.

Beberapa varietas yang telah lama masuk Indonesia, bahkan sejak jaman penjajahan Belanda dan kini dianggap sebagai anggur lokal. Beberapa di antaranya adalah Black Alicante, Golden Champion, Muscat Van Alexandrie (Probolinggo Putih), Frankenthaler (Probolinggo Biru), Isabella, Gross Colman, dan Alphonso Lavale (Bali).

Pada masa ini, di balai-balai penelitian hortikultura indonesia, khususnya yang penulis tahu adalah Balitjestro, Batu – Malang, telah terkoleksi sekitar 80 varietas dari berbagai negara. Setelah melalui tahap-tahap seleksi dan observasi kemudian dilepas ke masyarakat indonesia sebagai varietas unggul.

Beberapa varietas anggur yang banyak beredar di masyarakat:

1. Anggur Bali

Nama utama: Anggur Bali
Nama lain: Alphonso Lavale, Alphonso la Valle, Ribier, Rivier, Rabier, Black Muscadel, Prince Royal Albert, Blaue Oliventraube, Blaue Geisdutte, Gross Noir, Almeria Negra.
Negara Asal: Perancis
Spesies: V. Vinifera
Penangkar:
Tahun Edar:
Kegunaan:Anggur Meja dan Minuman
Silsilah: Bellino x Lady Downess Seedling
Gambaran: Warna buah hitam, ukuran buah sedang hingga besar, kulit tebal, daging lunak, berbiji, manis sedang. Di indonesia telah banyak ditanam sejak sebelum tahun 1974, terutama di daerah Buleleng, Seririt, Banyupoh di wilayah Singaraja. Dalam tahun 1984, di kabupaten Buleleng telah ada sekitar 40,000 tanaman (sekitar 80 hektar) dan menghasilkan 500 ton buah anggur.

2. Probolinggo Biru

Nama utama: Problinggo Biru
Nama lain: Frankenthaler, Black Hamburg, Blauer Trollinger, Frankenthaler, Raisin Bleu de Frankenthal, Trollingi Keb, Uva Nera d’Amburgo, Muscat Hamburg
Negara Asal: Varietas yang sangat tua, masih diperdebatkan
Spesies: V. Vinifera
Penangkar:
Tahun Edar:
Kegunaan: Meja
Silsilah:
Gambaran: Buah hitam kebiruan, ukuran sedang, tandan berjejal.

3. Probolinggo Putih

Nama utama: Iskendiriye Misketi, Muscat van Alexandrie, Alexander Muskat, Moscatel de Malaga, Moscatel Roma, Muscatel de Jesus
Nama lain: Calabria, Moscato Gordo, Muscat de Jerusalem, Tokay Musque, Zibibb
Negara Asal: Mesir
Spesies: V. Vinifera
Penangkar:
Tahun Edar:
Kegunaan: Meja, Minuman, Kismis
Silsilah:
Gambaran: Warna buah kuning kehijauan, bulat telur, kkulit tipis tapi liat, manis asam, beraroma khas.

4. Probolinggo Super
Nama utama: Probolinggo Super
Nama lain: Cardinal, Apostoliatiko, Carabournu, Karaburnu Rannii, Kardinal
Negara Asal: USA
Spesies: V. vinifera
Penangkar: Elmer Snyder and Frank Harmon Institution: U.S. Hort. Field Stn. (Fresno, CA)
Tahun Edar: 1946
Kegunaan: Meja
Silsilah: Flame Tokay x Ribier (Alphonse Lavallée)
Gambaran: Petani di Probolinggo kurang suka menanam varietas ini karena malas berbuah dan mudah retak pada musim hujan.

5. Caroline

Nama utama: Carolina Black Rose
Nama lain: Caroline, Dunstan200
Negara Asal: USA (N. Carolina)
Spesies: American Hybrid
Penangkar: Robert T. Dunstan
Tahun Edar: 1964
Kegunaan: Anggur Meja
Silsilah: Aurelia (Putih) x Black Rose (Hitam)
Gambaran: Pohon besar dan lebat, warna buah hitam, kulit dan daging keturunan vinifera, buah besar tetapi tidak sebesar Black Rose, berbiji, tahan tepung embun. Aurelia juga adalah salah satu hasil silangan Robert T. Dunstan dari Chaoch x Seyve-Villard 12-375. Carolina Black Rose masih sekeluarga dengan Dunstan210 dan Dunstan246. Di Australia, Carolina Black Rose dipakai untuk menghasilkan Marroo Seedless. Di Indonesia dikenal sebagai anggur merah dari Australia. Merupakan tanaman introduksi dari Australia.

6. Prabu Bestari

Nama utama: Prabu Bestari
Nama lain: Black Prince Blek Prens, Rose of Peru
Negara Asal: Afrika Selatan
Spesies: V. Vinifera
Penangkar:
Tahun Edar:
Kegunaan: Meja
Silsilah:
Gambaran: Merupakan tanaman introduksi dari australia pada tahun 1986. Pohon lebat. Tandan buah sedang, tidak bercabang. Buah merah tua sampai ungu hitam, lonjong, kecil. Kulit menempel ke daging, ketebalan sedang, keliatan sedang, daging tidak begitu lunak, harum dan manis, kematangan seragam.

2 Comments »

  1. Madam/Sir,

    I am very interrested in vine growing in Indonesia and would require more information on this matter. Would you be able to help me?

    Best regards, Mans Teir

    Comment by Mans Teir — January 7, 2011 @ 8:39 am

    • Yes, ofcourse, what can i do to help you?
      Sorry, i’ve been away from this blog so long.
      Sunny and rainy season in year 2010 is so strange and it’s still continue to this jan 2011.
      it got a lot of heavy rain in sunny season, usually dry season around may-june through oct-nov and i can pick beautiful bunches of grapes.
      but since this unexpected rain, i got bunch abortion and small bunch, but still very good size and very sweet carolina blackrose. but made me loose appetite to post it in this blog.
      anyway i’ll post a photo of carolina blackrose and balinese grape after this.
      i made my carolina blackrose that supposed to be red color became green by applying some sort of fruit growth hormon with trade mark “Sar-bu” which is sold in surrounding jakarta’s gardening hobby store.
      Thanks for your interest….

      Comment by anggurindo — January 27, 2011 @ 8:35 pm


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